By John Charvet
This e-book is set the grounds of moral lifestyles, or the character and foundation of our moral duties. It comprises an unique account of those grounds and indicates how this figuring out calls for particular sorts of social and political lifestyles. Charvet considers the information of the liberty and equality of guys within the many kinds they've got taken and indicates that there's a radical incoherence underlying them which is composed within the failure to combine in a coherent method the actual and the ethical or communal dimensions of person existence. those dimensions are separated and against one another. within the ultimate portion of the ebook Charvet develops an unique account of the grounds of moral lifestyles which satisfactorily integrates those specific and communal components of individuality. it really is designed to teach how the ethical claims of people are grounded of their linked wills in a group and but how this kind of belief preserves the separate individuality of the community's individuals.
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Additional info for A Critique of Freedom and Equality
G. benevolent ones, in one's particular life, one has an overall attitude to one's particular life and to the values realized in it that can be called egoistic ? 14 I-desires are desires for states of oneself which can always be expressed in the form: I desire that / have, possess or enjoy something, whereas non-I desires are desires for states of another being X, where what I desire is that X have, possess or enjoy something, and this desire cannot be reduced to a means to the attainment of some further I-desires.
Here we have the modern idea, that I have been concerned to elicit, expressed in undisguised crudity. How is this idea of equal worth to be established ? In answer to this, Benn presents a picture of man as a rational being, who, by making responsible choices among possible ways of life, is capable of moral freedom and so makes himself into a being worthy of respect. The capacity to choose one's own way of life is the characteristic human enterprise and requires an ability to appraise and criticize oneself.
A commonwealth, because it opposes this tendency in human nature that leads to destruction and death, is to be derived from the nature of man in multitudes, since it constitutes the rationally necessary conditions for men to preserve themselves in multitudes. The general form of the argument for including morality in self-interest is, thus, that each man by nature seeks to preserve himself; whatever is a necessary condition of self-preservation serves the individual's self-interest; a commonwealth, and in other words ethical and political life, are necessary conditions of self-preservation, and hence are in each man's self-interest.
A Critique of Freedom and Equality by John Charvet